The fascinating history of tourism and aviation
13th February, 2023
The history of tourism is absolutely fascinating. Why do we go on holiday to the Caribbean? How was the cruise developed? Why did we start travelling by plane? This article answers all of these questions and more about the history of tourism.
- The history of tourism
- The history of aviation
- History of tourism- further reading
The history of tourism
The history of tourism is a long one. Whilst we may not always have had high speed trains, aircraft and luxurious cruise ships, people have long had the desire to be tourists.
The history of tourism can largely be attributed to technological developments in transport. The more roads that are built, the more places people can drive. The more airports that open, the more places that people can fly to.
The history of tourism is also closely related to the global economic, social and political outlook. Someone with lots of money is more likely to travel somewhere for a holiday than someone who does not have much money, for example. Likewise, many tourists are not likely to travel to a destination that is suffering from political instability.
There are many ways that the tourism industry and grown and developed over the years. In this article I will explain some of the elements of the history of tourism.
When did the history of tourism really begin? We can’t pinpoint it and, for obvious reasons, we can only really guess about tourism in ancient times. There are no selfies and no travel brochures to look back on, but we do know that people DID travel in ancient times. Historians have found records that provide an insight into the reasons that people travelled, and how this evolved into tourism.
We know that cultures and nations moved their armed forces around in order to conquer other areas, and to control trade routes and various resources. This created foundations for future travel. As the Egyptian, Roman and Eastern Mediterranean Empires emerged, necessary travel turned into tourism. The Phoenicians, for example, travelled not only to develop trade routes but also because of curiosity. They had a desire to discover what lay beyond that area of the Mediterranean.
And other peoples likely did the same. The Mayas in modern day Mexico, and members of the Shang Dynasty in modern day China, travelled to see what was beyond their own borders. They also wanted to spread their civilisations, of course. Historians have been able to find evidence of ancient travels – artefacts from other places turning up in excavations, that couldn’t be there unless the ancient people had their own form of tourism.
The Empire Era
It is hard to know when simple travel turned into what we would define as tourism. As mentioned, the Empire Era (beginning with the Egyptians, including the Greeks and stretching unit the eventual form the Roman Empire) was influential in the development of travel and tourism. As time went on, people travelled more. They travelled for various reasons: commercial, educational, governmental and religious purposes. With consolidated governments in different central locations established as early as the Egyptian Kingdoms (4850-715 BC), travel was a necessity.
And because travel was a necessity, so too were basic necessities. Lodging and food needed to be provided to those visiting from other areas, which likely gave way to a realisation that you could travel to another place just because. This is especially true of the Greeks (900-200 BC). They wanted to find fun in new locations – they promoted the use of a common language, and their money became a form of common currency.
Places that were important in terms of government activities turned into what we might call tourist attractions. With shops, places to eat and drink, sports to watch, gaming and even theatre, there was plenty to do if you travelled to a different area. This only evolved further with the ancient Romans. During their empire (500 BC – 300 AD), good roads were developed and water routes improved. Inns were opened, around 30 miles apart from each other – a relatively easy days journey in between, so you always had a place to rest at night. Horses could even be hired here.
Roman roads expanded into a 50,000-mile system. With their currency now almost universally accepted, and common languages such as Greek and Latin being used, travel constantly became easier and less stressful. Then came the common legal system. This allowed for people to feel safer and more protected as they traveled – whether that be for pleasure, business or adventure. Cities throughout the Roman empire (such as Pompeii) became destinations for the middle and upper classes to explore during their downtime.
This can teach us something about the way we travel today. Tourism booms when people have more free time (such as during school holidays) and currencies are easily exchangeable. There are common languages, and the existence of law allows for a feeling of personal safety. If any of these factors were to be removed, people would be less inclined to travel. This was seen during the Middle Ages, when tourism was in decline.
The Middle Ages and the Renaissance Era
Throughout the Middle Ages (5-14th centuries AD) travel – and by extension tourism – was pretty much nonexistent. It became dangerous after the fall of the Roman Empire. While there had been a commonality among nations, there were now autonomous areas thanks to a feudal system. Transport was fragmented; so was language and currency. This made travelling to somewhere different much more difficult than it had been.
And when people did travel, it wasn’t for leisure. With the Roman Catholic Church gaining power, there were nine crusades in attempt to retake the Holy Land between 1096 and 1291 AD. But they all failed, and left people with a desire to see the world outside of their own locality. People were keen to experience different civilisations.
Merchants – like Marco Polo – started to travel far and wide after the failed crusades. Polo’s travels in particular (1295-1295 AD) were reported on, and people started to become more interested in travelling again.
So travel was reborn. During the Renaissance (14-16th centuries AD) more merchants travelled further afield. This was in part due to the church and royalty controlling larger geographic areas than they previously had done. Trade routes also started to reopen. Commercial activity grew, and people continued to venture out of their own towns and territories.
The first real tourist, according to historians, was Cyriacus of Ancona. He journeyed around the Mediterranean, eager to learn about Greek and Roman history. His desire to learn about what had come before – and to see what remained – encouraged others to think about how travel could benefit education. And so, the Grand Tour Era emerged…
The Grand Tour Era
The Grand Tour era is an important part of the history of tourism. The era of the Grand Tour (1613-1785) was when tourism as we know it really came into play. Starting with the most wealthy in society, people travelled to learn. It was fashionable, and soon became a status symbol in its own way.
Those who were ‘coming of age’ would travel throughout Europe to see art, architecture, science and more in countries other than their own. Generally the most visited places were France, Switzerland, Germany and Italy. Each ‘Grand Tour’ would last a couple of years. People would travel by carriage, and be accompanied by someone older to take care of them.
This changed slightly with the introduction of the industrial revolution in around 1750. Economic and social structures were changed forever. The revolution meant that lengthy journeys such as a Grand Tour trip were no longer particularly viable for many people. Factory life and business management, and indeed modern industrialism as a whole, led to people becoming more tied down.
Transport changed too – it became more efficient as economies grew and technology advanced. Markets stretched across borders and individuals had higher incomes; travel was now for business and leisure, but with less free time trips were shorted. The tourism industry had to develop rapidly to ensure they could meet the newfound needs of potential customers.
The Mobility Era
The next stage in the history of tourism is all about mobility. As time moved on, the economy (and personal wealth) continued to grow. Increased leisure time and more accessible travel meant that tourism boomed. Because less people were tied down to all-consuming jobs such as farm work and more had moved on to working in offices, jobs and factories, there was more free time available. The Mobility Era (1800-1944) was defined by an increase in travel to new locations both near and far.
With new roads, passenger trains, stagecoaches and sailing ships becoming more common, tourism continued to grow. France and Great Britain had fantastic road and railroad systems which made the idea of travel even more available to people.
Then along came Thomas Cook, who can definitely be credited with bringing travel and tourism to the general public- Thomas Cook is one of the most famous names in the history of tourism! He was the first to introduce a tour package – travel and accommodation, with food often included too. In 1841 he arranged for a tour of around 570 people to travel from Loughborough to Leicester. For a shilling the journey included food and entertainment. There was instant demand for more of the same, and so the full-time business of arranging and providing travel services was born!
The Mobility Era continued to make changes. Cars and air travel were introduced next; with Henry Ford’s mass production for the Model T (1914), individuals had more freedom to travel. And thanks to Orville and Wilbur Wright’s successful test of the aeroplane in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, commercial air travel was also introduced. This meant the time it took to travel long distance was much shorter, and thus people were more mobile.
The Modern Era
Another important time in the history of tourism is the modern era. The ability to move around and see new places was a start. Mass tourism continued to develop in the first half of the 20th century. George Westinghouse introduced the idea of paid leave from work, with a firm belief that allowing staff paid time off would be beneficial to productivity levels overall. This gave the working and middle classes in certain countries the time and money to fulfil their travel dreams – so the demand for tourism grew.
And as World War II came to an end in the 1940s, those who had been forced to travel during the war where keen to replicate this experience in a more positive way. They were now eager to travel for fun! They also wanted to share this with their loved ones, whether that be through travelling together or sharing stories that made these people want to travel too.
With gas/petrol no longer rationed, economies growing and cars once again being mass-produced, people travelled around in their cars – this was especially true in America, where the motel business really took off. This is similar, in a way, to the inns during the Empire Era.
Many factors contributed to the exponential growth of the travel industry. Hotels and motels took to the franchising model of business expansion, and jet travel was properly introduced in the 1950s, becoming popular throughout the 1960s.
Another fifties introduction helped: the credit card. Originally the Diners Club card, this provided travellers with the means to buy things wherever they were in the world without the hassle of currency exchange and carrying cash. To this day, credit cards are the preferred way to spend money when travelling.
So people had time, they had money – travel was safe and accessible. Tourism has simply continued to grow ever since. We now have mass tourism, and the people who engage in it can be split into two groups. These are ‘organisation mass tourists’ who make use of package deals and pre-prepared itineraries, and ‘individual mass tourists’. The second group travel independently but do use mass tourism services (airlines, hotel companies etc) which have been promoted in the media.
The post-modern era
Travel is still ever-changing, though. People no longer necessarily travel just for the sake of travel – they want an immersive experience, adventure and the chance to give back to the local community. Tourism, and the travel companies with the industry, have to keep up with the different demands.
Throughout the 21st century, Internet access has become more common and new borders have opened. There is always increased wealth and mobility of citizens. As different countries become attractive to tourists, their economy grows – which, in turn, makes the destination more attractive. This is why tourism is SO important!
There are always peaks and troughs when it comes to tourism. Terrorism, health scares and political/economic instability often discourage travel. There are now increased security procedures at airports, borders and attractions which can be off-putting for some people. But, for the most part, people love to travel.
In the post-modern tourism era, consumers are more savvy, more fussy and more aware. Nowadays, people care more about environmental conservation, community impact, economic leakage and other such issues and are far more considerate when they plan and undertake their travels.
Also, people now search for experiences that are authentic and are looking to experience a range of different types of tourism. Organisations working within the sector can now offer far more smart tourism experiences, such as virtual tourism– which was widely used during the Coronavirus outbreak of 2020.
Similarly, consumers are more Internet savvy in the post-modern era, meaning that they are leaning towards independent research and dynamic packaging as opposed to using the traditional package tourism methods that were so popular for so many years. In fact, as a result of this change in buying behaviour, many tour operators and travel agents have gone out of business, including the famous Thomas Cook.
The history of aviation
An account of the history of tourism wouldn’t be complete without discussing the integral role that aviation has played. So, lets dig a bit deeper into the history of aviation specifically…
What is the history of tourism involving aircraft?
What most people don’t realise when considering the history of tourism is that aviation and flight has actually been around for thousands of years! Dating back to the ancient years in Greek mythology is the story of Icarus and Daedalus who attempted to create a pair of wings using wax and feathers.
While this invention sadly ended in tragedy, one thing it shows is that humans have been interested and intrigued by flight for centuries. It took us a bit of time to master the skies, however and it is thanks largely to the famous Wright Brothers and to various military developments that we have the aviation industry that we do today.
Early inventions impacting the history of tourism
The first aircraft known to be made by men was the kite. Created in China, the time is not known but many say it was sometime in the 5th Century, these kites are similar to the kites we still use today. Taking it a step further, the Chinese invented “man-lifting kites” which today are known as hot air balloons.
Aviation in the 1700’s
By the 1700s, aviation as we know it today was in full swing and inventors were exploring different devices, inventions and failures. At this time, there were two main categories of aviation: lighter than air aviation and heavier than air. This was an important time in the history of tourism.
In 1783, the Montgolfier brothers revealed their hot air balloon which didn’t need man to power it and the balloon flew over Annonay, France. This really started a wave of inventors who were interested in creating crafts that could fly without man powering it.
Later in that year, the brothers set up what is known as the first manned flight, with a tethered hot air balloon. A few weeks later, the brothers launched a manned flight with two astronauts onboard, that was untethered. Although the flight didn’t last very long because the fire began to burn the fabric, this is the beginning of modern-day aviation.
December 17, 1903- a major day in the history of tourism
On this date, Orville and Wilbur Wright changed the face of aviation and what it is today, making this day as a pivotal moment in the history of tourism.
Successfully completing four flights in their “flyer”, these brothers lasted mere seconds in the air in their aircraft and covered some 800 feet. Setting a new standard for aviation, these flights relied on power and control to work. This was brand new in the world of aviation and a very exciting achievement!
Because of the efforts of the Wright brothers, in 1914, the first passenger flight was used in the United States. Traveling from St. Petersburg and Tampa, Florida, these flights only lasted a few months but paved the way for what we know today as transcontinental aviation and marked an important development in the history of tourism.
The 1920’s and 1930’s were a time of major improvements and inventions in the aviation industry. Aircraft designs that were ahead of their time and influenced aircrafts that we see today, were being used to allow people to travel from one place to another comfortably.
Post World War II
During the time of World War II, many cities and countries had established their own airports and military aircrafts were being repurposed as commercial planes and personal planes. The War was a time of using these aircrafts to travel from one country to the next and the growth of international aviation during this time is monumental. This was a huge time in the history of tourism!
Not long after this time period, the Convention on International Civil Aviation was founded and still stands today. Also known as the Chicago Convention, this agency was established to regulate standards, safety and efficiency of all civil flights. Today, the agency has made significant improvements in the world of aviation and has allowed for safer and more economical airliners.
After the post World War II era there were substantial developments to the history of tourism and aviation. In the 1970’s, many aircraft became digitised and had computer systems built into the craft. Because of the creation of these systems, better aircraft have been made and the designs of airplanes have become sleeker, safer and more comfortable over the years.
Computer simulations of flights have also led to the design of lighter aircraft and airplanes that are stronger. Today’s aviation industry offers one of the safest forms of transportation and has taken huge strides over the years.
The history of aviation aviation has been and continues to be a huge part of the economy for the entire world and has seen major improvements over the years. Without the discoveries from inventors that came before us, airplanes and travel may not be where they are today.
Recent years have seen the development of double decker aircraft, cleaner and greener aircraft and aircraft that can operate longer distances…. will be have supersonic aircraft in the future? Biofuels? Only time will tell- the history of tourism is not complete yet!
History of tourism- further reading
As you can see, the history of tourism is long and fruitful. While the industry has had its ups and downs, largely due to outside factors such as economic recession, war or a virus outbreak, it has continued to play an ever-important role in our lives. If you enjoyed this article on the history of tourism, I recommend that you take a look at these articles too-
- The fascinating history of Thomas Cook
- The fascinating history of the hotel industry
- History of transportation
- The fascinating history of Aviation