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20 Interesting Facts About Niger

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There are many interesting facts about Niger that most people around the world do not know. With a long history and a unique culture, Niger is a fascinating country to learn about. Read on to find out exactly why Niger is so fascinating…

Interesting Facts About Niger

The whole of Africa has many countries, and each of them has its own unique culture, history, and geographical variations. 

Niger is one of the African countries, known for being the gateway to the largest desert in the world, the Sahara desert. It’s also well-known for having a lot of uranium deposits!

If you’re curious to know more, I’m confident that these facts about Niger will tell you a lot about the country. 

20 Interesting Facts About Niger

In these facts about Niger, you’ll get to know about its history, geographical information, culture, and people. So, let’s get into exploring Niger! 

1. Niger Is a Landlocked Country

A landlocked country is one that is surrounded by land (like other countries), and no water (like ocean or sea) at all. 

If you take a quick peek at the map of Africa, you’ll notice that Niger is located a little centrally towards the western region. Hence, it’s surrounded only by countries like Algeria (northwest), Libya (northeast), Nigeria and Benin (south), Burkina Faso and Mali (west), and Chad (east). 

2. Niger’s Flag Is Similar to That of Other Countries

20 Interesting Facts About Niger

Here are some facts about Niger flag. 

Try looking at Niger’s flag, and you might see that it resembles the flags of other countries, such as Ireland, Ivory Coast, and India. 

All three flags have bands in the same colours – orange, white, and green, which are arranged in different ways. Moreover, the flags of India and Niger also have the same arrangement of bands. The only major difference is that Niger’s flag has an orange roundel in the centre, while India’s flag has a navy-blue 24-spoke wheel in the middle. 

Niger’s flag also symbolises various things about the country! 

For instance, the orange band represents the Sahara desert, and the white band represents purity or the Niger River. The last green band represents hope and fertility. Lastly, the orange roundel represents the sun.

3. The Country Has the Highest Fertility Rate

These fertility facts about Niger are going to blow your mind!

Did you know that Niger has the highest fertility rate in the world? As per studies conducted in 2021, Niger has a fertility rate of 6.82 (around 7) children per woman. In addition to that, the annual population growth rate (2021) was also around 3.7%!

There are many reasons why Niger has such a high fertility rate. Some researchers believe that it’s because of early child marriages, less knowledge of contraceptive use, and cultural factors

4. Niger Has the Tallest Mudbrick Structure in the World

If you love architecture, these facts about Niger are for you. 

A mudbrick is a combination of mud, along with binding materials such as straws or rice husks. Now, Niger has many structures that consist of mudbrick, including houses. 

Niger also has the tallest mudbrick structure in the world, the Agadez Mosque. Located in Agadez, Niger, this mosque is made up of both clay and mud bricks. The tallest structure in the mosque itself is a minaret which stands at a height of 89 feet!

Apart from its splendid architecture, there are many legends about this mosque. Some locals believe that the Muslim scholar, named Imam Bakhili, built the entire mosque in only one night!

Due to its height, many locals used to use the mosque for various purposes, such as a compass and a watchtower.

5. Niger Has a Lot of History

20 Interesting Facts About Niger

There’s no country in this world without history. Hence, if you research historical facts about Niger, there’s a lot to know. 

The entire region of Niger is quite old, as archaeological evidence found that human settlements existed there from 10,000 BCE

Additionally, during the mediaeval period, the people from the Hausa Kingdom settled in the country and covered many present-day cities of Niger. The Songhai Empire was also established in the 15th and 16th centuries, which led to various developments. 

Later on, Niger became a French colony in the 19th century. Finally, it gained independence in 1960 and became an autonomous nation. 

6. The Official Language of Niger Is French

You might think the official language of Niger might be Arabic, due to the influence of Islam on the region. However, here are some surprising facts about Niger and its languages. 

The official language of Niger isn’t Arabic, it is French. It is because the French continued to rule the country for several years. Hence, French became the language of government officials, courts, and other such places. 

Amongst the common people, Hausa is the main language, and it is spoken by over 50% of the population. Some other languages spoken in Niger include Songhai, Tamasheq, and Arabic. 

7. Niger Has a Unique Architectural Style 

Here are some other facts about Niger and its architecture!

Unlike the concrete construction in most countries, Niger has a different construction style. As I mentioned earlier, Niger has many mudbrick structures, such as houses and mosques. 

Mudbrick is made by mixing clay with binding materials and then shaping it in the form of bricks. It is then dried in the sun, and used for construction. They also incorporate vernacular or local styles, and decorative items (carvings and motifs) in their architecture. 

If you look at the housing structure, you’ll find that they’re built in clusters. Hence, they have many alleyways!

8. One of the Largest Protected Areas in Africa Is in Niger

Niger is known for its desert landscape. Hence, you’ll also find one of the largest protected areas in Africa, Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves, in Niger. It’s also a UNESCO World Heritage Site. 

Aïr and Ténéré National Nature Reserve is located towards the northern side of Niger and is spread across 77,360 square kilometres. The entire reserve covers two main regions – the eastern side of the Aïr Mountains, and the western side of the Ténéré desert. 

The whole area is of the utmost importance to observe new flora and fauna. Sadly, it faces various disturbances and threats today due to poaching, overgrazing, and climate change!

9. Niamey Is the Capital of Niger

Here’s one of the general facts about Niger. 

Niger has many big cities, like Maradi, Niamey, and Zinder. Out of these three, Niamey is the largest, and also the capital of Niger. It has a population of 1.4 million (2023) and an area of 239.3 square kilometres. One of the reasons why Niamey is the biggest city in Niger is because of its closeness to the Niger River. 

Niamey also has many attractions to offer. Some of the popular tourist sites include the National Museum of Niger, Grand Marche, Niamey Grand Mosque, and W National Park Niger

10. Niger Is Home to Some of the Oldest Fossils

20 Interesting Facts About Niger

The whole of Africa has contributed a lot to the palaeontology world, including Niger. 

In the past, archaeologists have found many dinosaur fossils in regions of Niger such as the Ténéré Desert. Some of the most popular fossils include that of Ouranosaurus (a herbivorous dinosaur) and Spinosaurus (theropod dinosaur). Both these dinosaur species inhabited the Earth 90 to 100 million years ago! 

Many fish fossils were also found in the Aïr Mountains. These fossils were from the Devonian period and were around 380 million years old. 

11. Niger Is Extremely Poor 

Some of these facts about Niger are quite sad, as the country is facing severe poverty.

In 2021, more than 40% of the country’s population was extremely poor and children were underweight. There are multiple reasons behind it, such as a poor economy, a high dependency on agriculture, and a high fertility rate. 

Moreover, the country is also seeing a sudden influx of refugees, as people from Nigeria and Mali are fleeing away, and entering Niger. 

12. Niger Has Experienced Political Instability

These facts about Niger show that the entire country has faced a lot of struggles, including political instability. 

After gaining independence from the French in 1960, Niger had over four coups in the years 1974, 1996, 1999, and 2010. In 2021, they attempted a coup again but didn’t succeed.  

Due to the coups, the constitutional rule used to get replaced with the military rule, which caused more political instability. 

13. The Largest Landlocked Country in West Africa Is Niger

West Africa has three main landlocked countries such as Burkina Faso (in the west), Mali, and Niger (in the centre). Out of these three, Niger is the largest landlocked country, by size and population. 

Mali has an area of 1.24 million square kilometres, whereas Burkina Faso is quite small with an area of 267,950 square kilometres. On the contrary, Niger has a large area of 1.26 million square kilometres. 

Similarly, the population of Niger (25.3 million) is also way more than Mali (21.9 million) and Burkina Faso (22.1 million). It will continue to rise due to the high population growth rate. 

14. A Majority of Land in Niger Is Part of the Sahara Desert

The Sahara desert has always fascinated me due to its vastness! So, it was surprising to know these facts about Niger. 

A major portion (around 80%) of Niger is covered by the Sahara desert. Moreover, places in Niger like Agadez and Tahoua provide an entry point to the desert. 

The locals also call Agadez the “gateway to the Sahara”. Here, you’ll also find a large arch that acts as a door. If you want to explore the Sahara desert, you can enter through here. Note that this area of the Sahara desert is known as the Ténéré Desert. 

15. The Naming of Niger 

Now, let’s discuss some facts about Niger and its naming!

Niger gets its name from the “Niger River” that flows through the country. The word Niger originates from the Tamashek phrase “gher n-gheren”, which stands for “river among rivers”.

However, did you know that Niger wasn’t always called by this name? During the French colonisation, the French used to refer to Niger and Mali as French Sudan. It was only after the county got independence, that it changed its name to Niger.

16. Niger Is Known for Its Uranium 

20 Interesting Facts About Niger

As you may already know, uranium is a radioactive element that is useful for various purposes. Uranium is essential for medical purposes, nuclear energy, and nuclear weapons too. 

Presently, Niger is one of the top suppliers of uranium. The country has two huge mines that contribute around 5% to the world’s total uranium production. These mines are located near twin mining towns – Arlit and Akokan

17. The People of Niger Are Taught to Be Generous

We have to talk about the culture, if we’re discussing the facts about Niger. 

Right from their birth, the people of Niger are taught to be generous and giving. Along with that, they’re also asked to respect authority figures such as any religious scholars, and elders. 

The cultural values that are taught in Niger are heavily influenced by many Islamic teachings, as Islam is the main religion there. 

18. Niger River Is One of the Longest Rivers 

Although Niger is 80% desert, it also has the third-longest river in Africa and the eleventh-longest river in the world

Niger River stretches for around 4,180 kilometres in length and flows through many countries such as Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, Benin, and Niger. After passing through them, the mouth of the river drains into the Atlantic Ocean.

19. Niger Has Many Ethnicities

Due to its rich history and past, you’ll find people of many ethnicities in Niger. 

The main ethnic groups here include the Hausa people (53.1%), Tuareg people (11%), and Zarma & Songhay (21.2%). Apart from these, some other groups include Fulani, Kanuri, Gurma, and Toubou. 

20. The Djerma Stew Is One of the Famous Dishes of Niger

Ending this post with some food facts about Niger seems like a great idea! 

The people of Niger love to eat grains like rice, millet, and maize. Therefore, most dishes contain them, especially rice. 

Some of the famous foods of Niger include Jollof Millet, Zarma Salad, Wassa Wassa, and Djerma Stew. The Djerma Stew is one of the most-loved delicacies of Niger, as it is a flavorful combination of vegetables, local spices, and meat.

Further Reading – Facts About Niger

Even though Niger faces several problems today, I cannot deny that reading these facts about Niger gave me a much better insight into the country’s true culture. 

So, I hope you also got to know much more about the country, instead of just the usual headlines. Feel free to comment down other interesting facts about Niger that you’ve come across!

You can also read about other places in my other posts as suggested below. 

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